Saturday, January 23, 2021
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Everything You Need To Know About Education Policy 2020

By Rekha Mahajan

If we look at the history of Indian Education system we will be surprise to know that there was no significant change in it during the last 34 years and therefore this new Education policy is a kind of historic movement for everybody across India because this takes the Education system to new heights. If you look at the education system followed by other countries like USA, UK, you will find that their education system is really enhanced as they make sure that the students not only know the theory but are also well enhanced with the practical .So looking at the changes made their and system followed there In January 2015, Under the leadership of PM Narendra Modi a committee under former Cabinet Secretary T.S.R. Subramanian started the consultation process for the New Education Policy. Based on the committee report, in June 2017, the draft NEP was submitted in 2019 by a panel led by former Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chief Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan. The Draft New Education Policy (DNEP) 2019, was later released by Ministry of Human Resource Development, followed by a number of public consultations. The Draft NEP was 484 pages. The Ministry undertook a rigorous consultation process in formulating the draft policy: "Over two lakh suggestions from 2.5 lakh gram panchayats, 6,600 blocks, 6,000 Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), 676 districts were received. The Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, stated that the policy focuses on 'how to think' rather than 'what to think'
Why such a big change in Education System required ?
This is not an overnight decision that they have made. There are three very very crucial issues that they are going to address in the new Education System.
Firstly, they want that by 2035, atleast 50% students should move towards complete higher education. Right now If you look at the number only 25%Students enroll themselves in higher education programmes rest everyone dropout because of various reasons ,So they want that by 2035 atleat 50% students should be able to complete their higher education and this is only possible if they give perks and starts reforming the system.
Secondly, the important issue which they want to address is the rote learning. If you look at the education system it is extremely based on rote learning i.e ratification. If you can learn things, mug up things then you can crack any exam. looking at the present scenario right now, looking at global trend trend, it is very important that students should know the practical application. We all had studied physics in our 9th or 10th but how many of us can actually change the bulb in our house so what is the use of physics then, why we have invested so much time in learning things which are of no relevance and not just that if I ask you to pick any topper from class and ask him to write a job application, I am sure 90% ,of topper are not able to write a proper job application. Why is that? because we are not taught that, we are just taught to mug up things, we are not taught how to use our knowledge in practical domain so the government wants that each of these things should be eradicated .The system should be more practical and less theoretical.
Thirdly ,the major issue they tried to address by means of new education system is the importance that they give to other subjects .Right now we have various subjects that we learn and if we look back we might find that they are extremely irrelevant today. eg I had no option but to take commerce because my school didn't offer humanities at that time ,now today if I look my career as English literature lecturer, commerce subjects be it accountancy ,be it economics are highly irrelevant. I have invested 2 years if my life in studying something which is not making any sense to me right now. The government wants that the students should be able to select the option ,subjects on their own and then they want that all the subjects which you learn should help you in career ,it should not be like that a student studying physics ,chemistry, maths in 11th &12th and then did BSC and finally decided to enter into UPSC where he takes Political science as an optional subject ,so what he has done in all 7 years of his life 11th,12th and 5 years of graduation .Whatever he has studied play no role in UPSC Preparations .Therefore the students might stop and think had he made fool of himself by studying which is not making any sense right now .So the government wants to change the system so that every student who enters into the job find that whatever he has studied helps him in his job domain, in his Career &he is able to make sense out of that.
School level changes made by the Government in NEP
New Education Policy is really amazing and everybody feels like to go back to the school.
*Foundational Stage :If we look at the entire school life we will find that a child takes birth and after 3 years he steps into nursery ,kg and prep, so three years he goes to preparatory school then after that he jumps into main school ,where he enroll himself in class Ist and then the sequence begins till class 12th.This is how it is structured so far but now according to New Education policy this structure has been divided into four parts .5+3+3+4 Now Govt. has clubbed the preparatory school in the first two years in the main school so, nursery, Kg, Prep, Class 1st& Class 2nd all five are clubbed together. In this stage focus is to acquire knowledge through language i.e the focus on language development
*Preparatory Stage :After the student steps into class 3rd .Then begins the 2nd phase of school class 3rd, 4th, 5th. In these three years the student is taught basics and fundamentals. In mathematics where he has tables of 2 and 3 ,Basic addition, subtraction .
Middle Stage : After that he steps into class 6th.Amazing developments takes place when a student enter class 6th for the next 3 years his life changes altogether. He is introduced to all kinds of subjects be it Botany, Zoology, History, Mathematics, Pol Science, Economics, every subject is taught to the child so that he can understand where his interest lies and in next phase he will be able to select the subjects which he like the most so in these three years 6th,7th,8th the student is going to taught all the subjects and vocational courses are also introduced. These courses gives practical knowledge of the subject what you learn in these vocational courses can never be learnt from books .Efforts are made to make the knowledge more practical .Not only theory is taught but the students are given exposure to practical subjects .As well as coding is introduced .Till now coding was only taught to students who wants to become computer Engineer and that was taught in their bachelor's but now coding is introduced in class 6th itself. When a person codes lots of things happening in his brain and overall brain development happens So the government wants that the brain should be developed at this stage and the student can utilize that functioning in the later stages of his life.
Secondary Stage: Now the student steps into last level of schooling 4 years i.e 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th.This is the time when you have option to select a subject in which you would like to study & make career in that .You have choice to select from any academic as well as co-curricular subjects You can select different subjects from different streams, you can select subjects from science, commerce or humanity and co-curricular activities can also taken as subject .It is really beautiful if it is implemented in the same Spirit .
Process of Higher Education
1.Current :Bachelor's+Master+M Phil+Phd
New: Bachelor+Master+Phd
The entire process of higher education now is four step process has been changed into three step process. Now you can enrol yourself in bachelor's programs then you do post graduation &finally enrol yourself into Phd. There is no M.Phil. You have undergraduate, Postgraduate and Doctorate programme. Another important thing is that Bachelor's programme which is earlier of 3 years now is of 4 years, but you have the option to study or not to study the fourth year.
2 . 4 Years Under Graduate Program
The basic aim of the govt. is to increase Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher Education from 26%(2018)to 50% (2035) .In order to achieve the goal they made certain changes in the programme so that more and more students are motivated to complete their higher education .
3. 4 Years Multidisciplinary Bachelor's Program
The bachelor program has been taken into 4 parts
Ist year. - Certificate Program
2nd year - Advance Diploma
3rd year - Bachelor's Degree
4th year - Bachelor's Degree with research
4.Multiple Entry and Exit
If you enrol yourself in college and after 2 years suppose you have medical emergency or some financial trouble because of which you have to dropout from college .Now you have the option to enroll yourself in college in future from the 3rd year itself, you do not have to repeat 1st year or 2nd year. The system of multiple entry and Exit is introduced now. You can enrol yourself in 1st year and if you want a break you have given certificate ,So you can exit any time you want you will have that particular degree or certificate with you and after sometime if you want to reenrol yourself you can start from that point of time. Right now whenever you have to dropout you have to start from 1st year.
5.Academic Bank Of Credit
Now is credit based system. Earlier you have so many certificates which you have to keep in place but now everything is becoming online .So there is no certificates system just like you have a bank account.
Where anybody who deposits money in your bank account is going to be reflected there just like that we have credit based system you enrol yourself in any program your marks will be added in that particular online system against your name and anybody who would like to check your record can Just type of your name, important credentials can get all your marks ,anything related to your academics will be reflected in that credit based system .So this makes the process lots more easier ,you do not have to submit certificates everywhere. This is just like Adhar card .There will be pool where all the students data will be collected and available online to check and crosscheck
6. Cap On Fee Charged By Private Institutions
There is cap on the fees in regards to private colleges & Universities So far if you look at certain colleges in India they are charging really very high fee .In order to ensure that by 2035 atleast 50% People are through with their higher education the govt. has fixed the cap on the private institutions and universities. Any college can now not charge the fee they want. There is maximum limit In order to make the higher education cost effective, pocket friendly. With this measure lots of students are going to take the initiative of enrolling themselves in bachelor's program in completing their under graduate degree course .
National Education Policy 2020 envisions an India-centric education system that contributes directly in transforming our nation sustainably into an equitable and vibrant knowledge society by providing high-quality education to all.

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